Environmental Science (ENVS)

ENVS 1200  Environmental Challenges  
3 credit hours  

This course is an interdisciplinary introduction to environmental science. Students consider scientific methods, the scale and magnitude of environmental variables, societal pathways and impediments to solving environmental problems, and critical thinking about environmental issues. Topics include: hypothesis testing, social and scientific causation, linear and non-linear processes, temporal and spatial scales, feedback cycles, biodegradation and accumulation, and the social and organizational context of environmental activities. Classes 3 hrs and lab 3 hrs per week.

ENVS 1250  Physical Processes in the Environment  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Nova Scotia Grade 12 Mathematics or equivalent

Students in this algebra-based course are introduced to fundamental concepts regarding physical processes studied in environmental sciences. An understanding of kinematics, linear dynamics, work, power, energy and momentm conservation is developed. Elementary concepts related to fluids, waves and radioactivity are introduced and applied to environmental problems. Dimensional and order-of-magnitude analysis is emphasized.Classes 3 hrs and lab 3 hrs per week.

Note: Credit for ENVS 1250 will not be given after PHYS 1210 or PHYS 1211.
ENVS 2100  Green Chemistry  [CHEM 2100]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: CHEM 1211, CHEM 1212, or CHEM 1213

Green chemistry, or environmentally benign chemistry, is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Students examine the chemical principles and processes in the development of technology and in the effects that this technology has on the environment. Traditional approaches are avoided that only consider the treatment of pollution after it is created, and will focus on alternative routes that limit the production of waste.Classes 3 hrs per week.

ENVS 2200  Introduction to Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: ENVS 1200

Students examine human impacts on the environment and ecosystems, locally and internationally, through the medium of case studies, discussions, readings, critical analysis assignments, and practical lab applications. Students will practice biological and environmental sampling techniques, complete a research project, and participate in field trips. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. per week.

Note: For non-science majors, including B.E.S.
ENVS 2300  Environmental Science: Populations & Ecosystems  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: ENVS 1200; and 3 credit hours in BIOL

This course provides a scientific introduction to environmental problems and their solutions. The emphasis is on biological and ecological processes and their importance to global sustainability. Labs include hands on experience sampling local environments, participation on real research projects, and field trips to local environmental industry facilities. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs per week.

ENVS 2310  Environmental Science: Energy, Resources and Pollution  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: ENVS 1200, ENVS 1250 and CHEM 1210

This course provides a scientific introduction to environmental problems and their solutions, with emphasis on sustainability regarding energy and mineral resources, air, and water. Topics include evolving patterns of resource identification, exploration, and consumption, waste management, environmental pollution, climate change, and their implications for the dynamics of human environment relations from the local to the global scale. Labs offer a hands-on approach to concrete environmental problems, including the practical evaluation of patterns of environmental change based on real data. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs.

ENVS 2410  Energy and the Environment  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: ENVS 1200, ENVS 1250; and one of: CHEM 1211, CHEM 1212 or CHEM 1213

Students explore the history of energy use and the associated scientific and philosophic problems from ancient times to 21st-century. The current carbon-based economy, and alternative energy sources such as geothermal, wind, and solar energy are examined. Students are introduced to energy use including thermodynamics, combustion reactions, electrochemistry, and photovoltaics.

ENVS 3310  Field Course in Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours in Science, including ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310

Field courses are unique learning opportunities designed to bring theory to life in a natural setting. Normally double lectures held every second week during the regular semester are coupled with an intensive field component in spring or summer. Topics can vary with season and instructor expertise.Classes 3 hrs per week, plus intensive field lab.

Note: i) Multiple versions of this course taught on different topics may be offered within the same calendar year. ii) Students may count up to a maximum of nine (9) Field Courses toward their Group C requirements for a major or honours BSc in Environmental Science
ENVS 3340  Principles of Hydrogeology  [GEOL 3340]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOL 1200 and GEOL 1201

Students are introduced to the essential concepts of groundwater flow and wells. Topics include: flow through varying geologic material, water resources management, baseline groundwater quality, contamination of sub-surface environments, and an introduction to quantitative methods. Students will learn to recognize and interpret groundwater flow and chemical data, and have an opportunity to apply this knowledge via course work, laboratory exercises and field work. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. per week. Labs may involve field work.

ENVS 3410  Environmental Impact Assessment  [GEOL 3410]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours, including one of ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310

This course describes the legislative background and techniques for the prediction of impacts on biophysical and socio-economic environments. This course will cover screening, scoping, baseline studies, impact prediction, mitigation, monitoring and auditing. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs per week.

ENVS 3420  Environmental Monitoring and Auditing  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours, including one of ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310

This course describes the principles and applications of environmental auditing and monitoring. Techniques for environmental audit of facilities, organizations and projects will be covered, together with the design of monitoring programs and techniques for atmospheric, biological, hydrological, and socio-economic monitoring. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. per week.

ENVS 3430  Environmental Information Management  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours, including one of ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310

Students develop information management skills required for an effective approach to environmental challenges in a complex and fast-changing context, involving a wide range of stakeholders. Concepts, methods, and practical training

ENVS 3440  The Environment and Human Health  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours; and one of: BIOL 1202, ENVS 2200, or ENVS 2300

A range of natural and anthropogenic agents that result in human health problems in industrialized and developing countries are examined. Students explore the scientific causes, the potential health effects and any known synergistic effects of these agents, through case studies, readings, and discussion. Existing policies are evaluated. Students research, critique, and present at least three comprehensive case studies. Classes 3 hrs. per week.

ENVS 3450  Aquatic Environments  
3 credit hours  

Aquatic resources are essential to all living things on Earth. Students examine the similarities and differences in ecology, chemistry and physics of diverse aquatic ecosystems from marine to freshwater. Wetlands, lakes, rivers, estuaries, tidal systems and oceans are all considered. There are field trips to representative habitats. Classes 3 hrs and lab 3 hrs per week.

ENVS 3460  Indigenous Experience and Environmental Impact  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Forty-five (45) credit hours including one of ENVS 2310, ENVS 2200, GEOG 3304

The Indigenous experience is examined in relation to environmental assessments (EA) using case-studies. The degree to which Indigenous peoples participate in the EA process is discussed. The challenges and shortcomings of the EA process from an Indigenous perspective are investigated. An examination of EA reviews helps to identify gaps in the current environmental assessment legislation.

ENVS 3473  Environmental Chemistry  [CHEM 3473]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: CHEM 2332 or permission of instructor.

Students examine sources, movements and ultimate destinations of chemicals in air, water and soil. Topics include: principles of green chemistry; reactions of the ozone layer; chemistry of ground-level air pollution;

Note: There is no laboratory component for this course.
ENVS 3826  Special Topics in Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours and permission of the instructor
ENVS 3876  Directed Study in Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours and permission of the instructor
ENVS 4430  Directed Research  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 60 credit hours, including one of: ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310, and permission of the Environmental Science Chairperson

Students pursue a short term research project in such areas as: oceanographic sampling and analysis, policy development or environmental impact assessment. Students must identify an appropriate supervisor; provide a project proposal; and at the end of the project, submit a written report.

ENVS 4440  Environmental Policy  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Seventy-five (75) credit hours, including one of: ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300, ENVS 2310 or GEOG 3304

Students study environmental and natural resource policy in Canada and the world. Attention is paid to all scales at which policy is developed – local, provincial, national and international. The process and determinants of policy making are examined, including aspects of legislation and regulations, estimating their economic impact, participatory and stakeholder approaches, and conflict resolution. Interactions between policy, environmental management and compliance measures are explored, including the role of standards, estimating the status and sustainability of natural capital, and related circumstances under which business, communities and households comply with regulations of environmental impacts and natural resource use. Classes 3 hrs. per week.

ENVS 4450  Natural Resource Management  [GEOG 4424]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 60 credit hours, including one of: ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300, ENVS 2310, or GEOG 3304

This interdisciplinary course is an examination of the management of natural resource industries such as fisheries, forestry, mining and energy, focusing on interactions between biophysical, ecological, socioeconomic, and technological components. Topics include: sustainable development and environment-economy interactions in the resource sector; approaches to integrated natural resource development; theoretical and practical aspects of managing resources and resource industries; economics of sustainable

ENVS 4460  Environmental Pattern Analysis  [GEOG 4444]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Sixty (60) credit hours, including one of ENVS 2310, or GEOG 2306

Students focus on theory and practical methods for characterizing the structural and dynamic features relating to environmental systems. Practical applications include environmental systems related to rivers, lakes, coastal areas, fisheries, forests, ecosystems, underground mineral distribution, atmospheric variables (wind, temperature), and pollution.

ENVS 4470  Environmental Remediation and Restoration  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 45 credit hours and one of: ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300, or ENVS 2310

Current approaches to remediating damaged ecosystems, including such topics as mine reclamation, invasive species control, ecological restoration and constructed ecosystems are examined. Emphasis is placed on the scientific and socioeconomic bases for remediation and restoration, including the following: theoretical approaches; the role of traditional ecological knowledge; gaps between theory and practice; and hands-on training in local ecological restoration projects. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. per week.

ENVS 4480  Environmental Contaminants  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 60 credit hours. including: ENVS 2300, ENVS 2310, BIOL 1202, and CHEM 1211 or CHEM 1212

The focus of this course is on key environmental contaminants, including mercury, other metals, and selected volatile organic compounds. Emphasis is placed on experiential approaches, including field work and laboratory research, to study these environmental contaminants, Students are expected to participate in the critical analyses of literature, and in the discussion and presentation of their own research results.

ENVS 4490  Climate Change: Evidence and Uncertainty  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Sixty (60) credit hours including two of: ENVS 2310, PHYS 1210, CHEM 1211, CHEM 1212, CHEM 1213

Students review scientific evidence for climate change, and its natural and anthropogenic attributions. The mechanisms of climate change are emphasized and students analyze and evaluate proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Other topics include major impacts, feedback effects,

ENVS 4499  Environmental Seminar  
6 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Seventy-five (75) credit hours. including ENVS 2200, ENVS 2300 or ENVS 2310. Restricted to students registered in Environmental Science (minor, major, or honours) and to students registered in the Bachelor of Environmental Studies, or with permission of the Environmental Science Chairperson

The course deals with selected topics in environmental science. Specific topics vary depending on current issues, new developments, availability of speakers and the interests of students and instructor. Seminar 3 hrs. per week.

ENVS 4599  Honours Research Project  
6 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Honours standing in Environmental Science

Honours students work with a research advisor who will guide the students in the formulation of research proposals, the methodology to be followed during the course of the research, and in the analysis and write-up of the research findings. The thesis is presented orally. Lab 6 hrs. (minimum) per week.

ENVS 4799  Honours Research Frameworks  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Honours standing. This course is offered to Honours students in Environmental Science (who are enrolled in ENVS 4599).

Through a series of seminars and discussions, students review and develop their knowledge of and capability with a range of Environmental Science research methods, skills and approaches across various environmental research frameworks. Students prepare research for presentation within the School of the Environment.

ENVS 4826  Special Topics in Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
ENVS 4876  Directed Studies in Environmental Science  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: restricted to students in the honours program or permission of the Environmental Science Chairperson.