Geography (GEOG)

GEOG 1100  Global Perspectives on Land and Life  
3 credit hours  

An introduction to the world and its major regions, focusing on traits, processes, and geographical patterns which give regions their distinctive character. These elements are derived from the complex interrelationships between human activity and the environment. Regional case studies may include: Europe, monsoon Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and others.

GEOG 1200  People, Place and Environment  
3 credit hours  

This course introduces environmental geography through an integrative approach that explores how humans have impacted and been impacted by earth’s physical systems. Human linkages with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and solid earth will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on geographical problems and interaction between humans and environment of varying scales in order to better understand the complexity of our natural world. Where appropriate, case studies will be used to highlight specific methods of geographical analysis.

GEOG 2306  Geospatial Concepts  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: at least eighteen (18) credit hours

By developing literacy in core geospatial concepts and reinforcing skills in numeracy, students are given the opportunity to acquire foundational knowledge for geography and related disciplines such as anthropology, biology, environmental science and geology. Students examine map characteristics and interpretation, geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, image interpretation, and global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). This course is normally taught online.

GEOG 2310  Geography of Canada  
3 credit hours  

This course provides an overview of the physical, social, cultural and economic geographical characteristics of Canada taken as a whole and within its distinct regions. How humans affect and are affected by the physical environment will be a recurrent theme.

GEOG 2312  Urban Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200

Students are provided with an overview of the processes and patterns of urban development and change presented through traditional and contemporary models, underscoring the complex interaction of historical, morphological, environmental, technological, social, political, and economic landscapes occurring throughout urban areas.

GEOG 2313  Geomorphology  [GEOL 2373]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1200 or GEOL 1200 or GEOL 1201

Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and landscapes. Students explore the basic principles of geomorphology, with an emphasis on Canadian landscapes. In lab exercises, students investigate and apply common techniques of geomorphological data collection and analysis. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week

GEOG 2315  The Oceans  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200

A geographic study of the physical, environmental, economic and societal aspects of the world’s oceans. Examination of the development of traditional and new uses of the oceans will focus attention on management issues. Regional case studies will be used to illustrate evolving concepts of oceanic management, including marine protected areas, territorial seas, and conflict of use issues.

GEOG 2325  Sedimentology  [GEOL 2325]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1200 or GEOL 1200 or GEOL 1201

Weathering and the origin of sedimentary materials. Introduction to sediments and sedimentary rocks. Processes of sedimentation and the origin of sedimentary structures. Interpretation of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks in the light of comparison with modern environments in non-marine, marginal marine and marine settings. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 2332  Global Cities  
3 credit hours  

With over half the global population now urbanized, cities play an increasingly important role in the contemporary world. Comparisons are made of the structure and function of cities in each of the global regions, and the benefits and costs are considered for a rapidly urbanizing world.

GEOG 2333  Biogeography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1200

Students study of the spatial and temporal distribution of plants and animals on Earth. Local to global scale patterns of species distribution in terrestrial and marine environments are explained by examining physical controls, ecological principles, and human impacts. Concepts of speciation, evolution, migration and extinction are explored to examine species changes over space and time. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of humans as agents of change in biogeographical distributions. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 2341  Economic Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or 1200

The economy is continuously changing, serving as a catalyst for restructuring and reorganizing. Students will be introduced to the key foundations of economic geography, global-local connections of economic change, patterns and processes of economic change, and economic actors and their interactions. The course is taught from a sustainable development perspective, exploring interactions between interconnected economic, social and ecological systems.

GEOG 2343  Weather and Climate  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1200

Students investigate weather and climate systems on Earth across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Topics include: the atmosphere, energy balances, microclimates, regional weather, and global climate processes. Applied meteorology and climatology will also be covered, including adaptation and mitigation strategies for severe events.

GEOG 2349  Cultural Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200

Students are introduced to the core geographic concept of place and critically examine its role in shaping (while in turn being shaped by) significant dimensions of cultural identity, including nationalism, heritage, religion, language, race and ethnicity, gender, sexuality, fashion, food, music and dance.

GEOG 2356  Inquiry and Explanation in Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200

Students consider the design, conduct, evaluations, explanation, and dissemination of geographic research. Topics include: formulating research plans, conducting literature reviews, developing hypotheses, planning data collection, presenting results, evaluating evidence, and drawing valid conclusions.

GEOG 2386  Introduction to Mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2306

Students are introduced to the critical design, compilation and construction of maps as a medium for communication and research. Issues surrounding data acquisition, online data sources and data quality is explored. Fundamental concepts and components of geographical information systems (GIS) are introduced using an experiential learning framework, merging theory and practice. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 2390  Geography of Ireland  [IRST 2391]  
3 credit hours  

Students examine the physical, social, cultural, economic, and political geography. Special emphasis will be given to the nature of past and present internal population movements and emigration patterns, regional variations in economic development, and the effects of membership in the European Union.

GEOG 3004  Geography and Environmental Studies in Practice  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Registered major or honours students in Geography, B.E.S. or GEOL/GEOG combined program, and at least 48 credit hours

Students explore how geography and environmental studies is practiced and applied beyond the classroom. This professional development course is based on the principle of experiential learning while examining how our discipline is applied in the real world. In addition to class discussions and guest lectures, 15 volunteer service learning hours throughout the term outside the classroom will be required with non-profit, for-profit, private sector or government agencies.

GEOG 3100  Geography Field School  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200, and 24 credit hours, plus permission of the Department Chairperson

The physical and human geography of a selected Canadian region will be studied primarily in the field in this experiential learning course. Trip destinations may vary in different years according to faculty interests and collaborative opportunities that may arise. An integrative regional geography perspective will be taken. Students will be required to attend orientation and preparation classes before the trip, and to complete assigned course work after the trip.

GEOG 3150  Geography Behind the Headlines  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100

Students explore the geographical backgrounds to selected issues of current public interest, through geography's perspective of integrating human and physical environments. Selected issues are analyzed at interdependent scales from the global to the local. Critical perspectives on multi-media are emphasized in relation to a variety of current events.

GEOG 3213  Applied Geomorphology  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2313 [GEOL 2373] or GEOG 2333

Students consider geomorphological processes that are of societal significance, including habitat loss and hazards such as flooding, landslides, slope failure and coastal erosion. Approaches to mitigating and adapting to natural and human induced geomorphic changes will be explored using global case studies and local hands-on examples. Students undertake 12 hours of volunteer practicum-service learning hours with local practitioners throughout the term. Classes 3 hrs. and lab/practicum 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 3302  The Built Environment  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: One of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341, or GEOG 2349

Students explore cities; their physical components (e.g. streets, buildings, infrastructure, green spaces), techniques for their evaluation, and theories about how they develop. Students consider how urban landscape influences culture, environment, society, and the economy.

GEOG 3304  Environmental Management  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200, and at least 24 credit hours.

This course provides a framework for effective identification, analysis, and management of environmental systems at different scales. It introduces concepts and methods designed to address real-world problems characterized by complexity, uncertainty, and change. Specific geographical environments and selected management issues (such as water pollution, soil erosion, and waste management), are examined, together with methods of environmental planning and impact assessment, including practical aspects of environmental management standards.

GEOG 3310  Transition Zones and Boundaries in Geographical Space  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: At least 9 credit hours in GEOG courses

Transition zones connect, while boundaries separate, regions in geographical space. This online course will examine the variety and characteristics of transition zones and boundaries and pursue explanations of gradients across transition zones. A pan-geographic approach will focus on human, plant, and animal responses to, and movements across, boundaries and transition zones.

GEOG 3311  Rural Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: One of GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

Examines the nature of rural settlement and land use in various cultural and technological settings. Emphasis is placed on agricultural patterns, and the changing organization of the countryside in modern societies. Topics include frontier settlement; land surveys; village morphology; land abandonment; farm enlargement and fragmentation; forestry, mining, and recreational uses; commuting; and conflicts over multiple land use and scenic preservation.

GEOG 3320  Geography of the North  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 24 credit hours

The North has become increasingly important in the globalized world. Students will identify and explore the Provincial North, the Territorial North, and international northern regions. Perspectives on major geographical challenges in the North are explored, such as the interactions of growing demand for natural resources, migration and mobility, globalization, and the influences of climate change.

GEOG 3321  Spatial Processes of Economic Globalization  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: ECON 1202 or one of GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

The world economy has been reconfigured by an increasingly interconnected global movement of goods, money, information and people. Students are provided with an overview of various aspects of global economic processes with case studies looking at locally specific outcomes. Themes covered include: uneven development and debates around globalization, the changing structures of major industrial/economic sectors, new international division of labour, and the role of geography in the global economic processes.

GEOG 3326  Statistical Methods in Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2306

Students are introduced to methods and problems in the collection, description, and analysis of geographic data. Included are descriptive and inferential statistics for spatial data, regression and correlation, analysis of patterns, and use of statistical software.

GEOG 3329  Geographical Perspectives on Nature  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Any Group A or Group B GEOG course at the 2000-level

Students explore historical and contemporary conceptions of nature to assess how they shape and are shaped by culturally produced ‘natural’ landscapes. Landscapes to be analyzed will include: wilderness reserves, rural countryside, suburban yards, city parks, urban gardens, and zoos.

GEOG 3340  Geography of Nova Scotia  [ACST 3340]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: at least twenty-four (24) credit hours

This course explores the geographical diversity of the province, with particular emphasis on interrelationships between physical and human patterns. A section on the physical environment is followed by a discussion of settlement, cultural patterns, and economic development. Current issues of resource development, industrial reorganization, environmental management, and land use planning are addressed.

GEOG 3350  Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 or GEOG 1200

Students are introduced to the geography of Africa south of the Sahara. Economic, historical, political, social, cultural and environmental issues will be examined in the large, diverse region. Students will gain an understanding of the spatial distribution of geographic and environmental phenomena both from a human, economic and physical perspective.

GEOG 3351  Demography and Migration  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: One of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

Changes in populations over time have dramatic implications for society and the environment. Students learn the key concepts, theories, and methods of demography. Students examine the current Canadian and international demographic trends, utilizing data from agencies such as Statistics Canada and the OECD.

GEOG 3356  Remote Sensing of the Environment  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2306

Students study the acquisition, storage, manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and applications of remotely sensed digital imagery with an emphasis on remote sensing of terrestrial surfaces. A range of sensors and spatial scales of imagery are introduced. Image interpretation and processing skills are developed using current image processing software in the lab. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 3380  Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1200 or ENVS 3630, and 24 credit hours in GEOG, ENVS, IDST or POLI

Students examine global, regional and sectoral impacts of climate change with an emphasis on geographical, bio-physical and socio-economic factors influencing risk and vulnerability. Students explore how individuals and communities can increase resilience through adaptation using regional and international examples.

GEOG 3386  Concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Analysis  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2386 or GEOL 3305

Students focus on applied geospatial analyses using ArcGIS and associated extensions. Topics include spatial analysis and geostatistics, 3D surface modelling, visualization, network analysis, predictive modelling and multiple criteria evaluations. Examples are drawn from earth and environment science, geography, environmental studies, anthropology and business. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 3416  Qualitative Research Methods in Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2356

Students are introduced to major qualitative research methods utilized by geographers. Topics include: data collection (interviewing, participant observation, textual analysis, focus groups, photovoice) and data analysis.

GEOG 3433  Fluvial Geomorphology  
3 credit hours  

Students examine processes and landforms associated with rivers. Topics include drainage basin controls, channel processes and morphology, erosional and depositional fluvial landforms, and evolution of fluvial landscapes. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 3454  Bay of Fundy: Environments and Issues  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100 and GEOG 1200 and 24 credit-hours, plus permission of the Department Chairperson

In this interdisciplinary field course students examine physical, biological and human environments, processes and issues in the Bay of Fundy region from both a historical and a contemporary view. Topics include physical and biological processes such as tides and biological productivity, ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marshes, settlement patterns, and resource use. Emphasis is placed on current issues and solutions.

GEOG 4100  Geography International Field School  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100; GEOG 1200; twenty-hour (24) credit hours and permission of the Departmental Chairperson.

Students study the physical and human geography of selected international regions primarily in the field in this experiential learning course. Trip destinations may vary in different years according to faculty interests and collaborative opportunities that may arise. Student take an integrative regional geography perspective. Students are required to attend orientation and preparation classes before the trip, and to complete assigned course work after the trip.

GEOG 4150  Geographical Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Development  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: 60 credit hours

The rapid transformation of Asian societies represents one of the most important shifts of the global economy in recent decades. Students examine Asia Pacific development as the product of global linkages as well as geographically specific socio-economic and political change. Through case studies, students explore various contemporary issues of Asia Pacific development. In particular, students examine the significance of transnational linkages that integrate and implicate Canada in the socio-economic development of the Asia Pacific region.

GEOG 4406  Capstone Seminar in Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Registered major or honours students in Geography, the Bachelor of Environmental Studies program, or the Geology/Geography combined program, with at least sixty (60) university credit-hours

Students analyze major philosophical and methodological developments that have shaped modern geography in order to explore areas of common ground and divergence within our broad-ranging discipline. Throughout the term students address two fundamental questions: what defines the academic discipline of geography and how is geographical expertise applied beyond academia?

GEOG 4412  Urban History and Preservation  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Two of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

Students examine the evolution of cities from antiquity through the middle-twentieth century, including their morphological and functional characteristics. A focus is placed on the value of historical landscapes in today’s urban fabric, and techniques for their protection and revitalization.

GEOG 4413  Coastal Geomorphology  [GEOL 4476]  
3 credit hours  

Students examine both the physical processes that operate in the coastal zone, at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and the resulting landforms. The actions of waves, tides, currents, wind, sea level changes, biota, and humans are examined through the lens of ecomorphodynamics and process response models in sandy, cohesive, estuarine, rocky, tropical and permafrost coastal systems. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 4423  Glaciers and Glaciation  [GEOL 4475]  
3 credit hours  

Glaciers have profound effects on landscapes and are an important component of global physical systems. Glaciology, causes and records of fluctuations in glacial coverage, glacial processes, glacial landforms, and the legacy of past glacial activity on earth will be examined. Broader impacts of glacial activity and changes on humans and the environment will also be investigated. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 4424  Natural Resource Management  [ENVS 4450]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 3304 or ENVS 2300 and one of MATH 1207 or GEOG 3326 or BIOL 2308

This interdisciplinary course is an examination of the management of natural resource industries such as fisheries, forestry, mining and energy, focusing on interactions between biophysical, ecological, socioeconomic, and technological components. Topics include: sustainable development and environment-economy interactions in the resource sector; approaches to integrated natural resource development; theoretical and practical aspects of managing resources and resource industries; economics of sustainable resource use; methods for analysing the impacts of resource use. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3hrs. per week.

GEOG 4426  Ecosystem and Natural Area Management  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 1100, GEOG 1200 and 30 credit hours

Students explore the scientific foundation for ecosystem management, including its social, biological and ecological aspects. Structure, function, diversity and integrity of ecosystems, and their representation in ecoregional frameworks as units for management of resources are examined. Students study types of management systems, policy processes and the role of natural areas and protected systems in sustaining ecological integrity, including consideration of habitats and habitat diversity and fragmentation in natural areas.

GEOG 4431  Community and Regional Development  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Two of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

Students are introduced to community and regional development theories, techniques, and approaches. Geographical perspectives of space, place, and scale will guide the discussions of community and regional development in the Canadian context. The course will blend lectures and applied research initiatives to provide students the opportunities to apply their knowledge to ‘real-world’ situations.

GEOG 4432  Social Geography of the City  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Two of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

The location of residential areas in cities, and the differentiation and segregation of those areas by income, occupation, race, ethnic status, and religion are examined. Emphasis is placed on the historical evolution of social patterns, on the link between social areas and the physical fabric of the city, on competition between groups for amenity locations and facilities, and on the conflicts over noxious facilities.

GEOG 4434  Watershed Management  
3 credit hours  

Students explore the concept of integrated watershed management. This will include assessments of biophysical freshwater systems, implications for natural resource development and land use on water quality and quantity, as well as institutional arrangements and the role of stakeholder involvement in watershed-scale decision-making. Field trips to local watersheds will be incorporated into the course syllabus.

GEOG 4442  Urban Planning  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Two of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

The physical and environmental planning of urban areas, with special reference to current practice in Nova Scotia are examined. Topics include the emergence of modern town planning, the Planning Act, planning process, structure plans, general and partial urban allocation models, municipal plans, zoning, subdivision control, site planning, urban renewal, and new towns. The costs and benefits of planning are appraised.

GEOG 4443  Natural Hazards  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 2313 [GEOL 2373] or GEOG 2343 and at least 6 credits hours in GEOG courses at 3000 level or above

Natural hazards as a part of human-environment relations characterized by changing geographical patterns are examined. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, severe weather, floods, coastal hazards, extraterrestrial body impacts are analyzed in a multi-scale perspective, along with their functional relationships. The human impact of natural hazards is discussed, with an emphasis on environmental perception, public awareness and action. Possibilities of forecasting are examined, as well as risk assessment and mitigation strategies.

GEOG 4444  Environmental Pattern Analysis  [ENVS 4460]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Sixty (60) credit hours, including one of ENVS 2310 or GEOG 2306

Students focus on theory and practical methods for characterizing the structural and dynamic features relating to environmental systems. Practical applications include environmental systems related to rivers, lakes, coastal areas, fisheries, forests, ecosystems, underground mineral distribution, atmospheric variables (wind, temperature), and pollution. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. per week.

GEOG 4449  Tourist Geographies  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Two of: GEOG 2312, GEOG 2341 or GEOG 2349

Students investigate why and how people travel, in the past and today, before examining several prominent tourist landscapes to understand the particular geographies that both shape and are shaped by the tourist imagination. Students will also address ethical questions associated with tourism.

GEOG 4459  The Power of Maps: A Social History of Cartography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Any two Group A or Group B GEOG courses at the 2000-level

Maps reveal a great deal about the worlds of their makers, communicating the technical proficiencies, economic structures, social relations, political objectives and prevailing belief systems of the societies that call them forth. Students critically examine the map-society relationship in selected historical contexts, as well as in our contemporary society.

GEOG 4465  Advanced Sedimentology  [GEOL 4465]  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOL 2325 [GEOG 2325] and GEOL 3326

This course examines current research on sedimentary rocks and basins and the methods used to understand them. Among the topics to be covered are modern carbonate and evaporite environments, exotic chemical sedimentary rocks and diagenetic cements, volcanogenic sedimentary rocks, sequence stratigraphy in carbonate and siliciclastic successions, applications of ichnology (trace fossils), the use of stable isotopes in the study of terrestrial carbonates, and the use of detrital minerals to interpret basin evolution. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 4496  Applications in Geographical Information Systems  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: GEOG 3356 or GEOG 3386

Students further develop their understanding of geomatics and its applications. Students focus on the use of either geographic information systems (GIS) or remote sensing to address practical problems in areas such as resource management, marketing, regional planning, natural hazards and geomorphology. Students undertake a major research project using various GIS analytical functions, and develop skills relating to data creation, manipulation, quality assessment and presentation. Classes 3 hrs. and lab 3 hrs. a week.

GEOG 4526  Honours Thesis  
6 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Honours standing in Geography

The Honours thesis requires an independent research project to be completed under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The advisor will guide the student in the formulation of the research proposal, methodology to be followed, the collection and analysis of data, and in the writing of the thesis.

GEOG 4800  Selected Topics in Geography  
6 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Vary depending on the nature of the Selected Topic

These courses will cover topics not represented by other courses in Geography. The subject matter will be selected by the instructor. If appropriate to the material, a class and lab mode of presentation may be used instead of classes alone.

GEOG 4826  Directed Study in Geography  
3 credit hours  
Prerequisite: Vary depending on the nature of the Selected Topic

These courses will cover topics not represented by other courses in Geography. The subject matter will be selected by the instructor. If appropriate to the material, a class and lab mode of presentation may be used instead of classes alone.

GEOG 4850  Directed Study  
3 credit hours  

3 credit hours

GEOG 4876  Directed Study in Geography  
6 credit hours